Men of all ages are more likely to suffer from loneliness; Among men between the ages of and who live alone, they report significantly lower levels of support and friendship than men who live with others. Interestingly the same is not the case for women. Men rely on their wives or partners for social and emotional needs.
Youth researchers often focus on cataloging risks and fixing problems. This is, of course, understandable because vulnerable youth require attention and we most certainly want to address the deleterious factors that may contribute to poor outcomes for youth.
These kinds of studies are necessary and useful, but they are problem-focused reference points that often translate to change strategies that emphasize amelioration.
Some of the studies in this theme issue focus on adolescent strengths, but do not necessarily apply a resiliency paradigm e. Resiliency theory supplies the conceptual scaffolding for studying and understanding why some youth grow up to be healthy adults in spite of risks exposure Garmezy, ; Masten, et al.
Resiliency focuses attention on positive contextual, social, and individual variables that interfere or disrupt developmental trajectories from risk to problem behaviors, mental distress, and poor health outcomes. Positive factors that reside within individuals such as self-efficacy and self-esteem are defined as assets.
Resources refer to factors outside individuals such parental support, adults mentors and youth programs that provide youth with opportunities to learn and practice skills.
Assets and resources provide youth with the individual and contextual attributes necessary for healthy development. The theories of risk protective of the papers in this theme issue on adolescent health, although not intentionally applying a resiliency approach, include attention to promotive factors.
Applying a resiliency lens to examine the papers in this issue, however, provides an opportunity to consider how we can study systematically adolescent health using a strengths-based approach.
Their SE-HEPA scale focuses on confidence in making the correct choices for healthy eating and physical activity can be used to evaluate programs designed to develop a youth asset that may be help youth make healthy behavioral choices.
Their study provides empirical evidence that health education programs that focus on enhancing this individual asset may be effective for encouraging healthy sexual behavior. Several of the articles in this theme issue also focus on resources associated with positive youth development outcomes and that can help youth overcome risk.
Families are consistently identified as a vital resource for healthy youth development for a variety of health outcomes Caldwell et al.
The Steering Teens Safe study provides an example of the role parents can play as a key resource for youth learning how to drive Ramirez et al.
Promotive resources also include programs that provide youth with opportunities to learn and practice skills. While many of the studies highlighted in this issue focus on promotive factors, they do not explicitly apply an analytic framework guided by resiliency theory.
Resiliency theory includes several models that describe how promotive factors may counteract, protect against or inoculate youth from the negative effects of risks Masten et al. These models guide data analytic strategies and can inform the design of intervention by defining strategies to enhance promotive factors.
A third model has limited empirical support, but also provides an explanation for how youth may overcome the adverse consequences of risks. In the compensatory model, promotive factors neutralize risk exposure in a counteractive fashion. Thus, compensatory factors have an opposite effect on a developmental outcome e.
This is a direct and independent effect from risks. Thus, compensatory factors contribute additively to the prediction of outcomes and are simply entered in a regression analysis after risks are accounted for in the equation.
Parental support, for example, was found to compensate for risks associated with fighting and being around violent adults Zimmerman, et al. In this study, parent support predicted less violent behavior among their adolescent children and this effect was independent and in the opposite direction of the risks.
The protective factor model suggests that promotive assets or resources modify the relationship between a risk another promotive factor and outcomes. Two possible protective models are risk-protective and protective-protective. Risk-protective models indicate that promotive factors operate to moderate or reduce the association between risks and negative outcomes.
Protective-protective models operate to enhance the effects of either promotive factor alone for predicting an outcome. Protective models are tested using interaction effects in regression or multi-group analysis in structural equation modeling. Hurd and Zimmerman provide an example of a risk-protective model in their study of adolescent mothers.
They found that natural mentors helped protect adolescent mothers from the negative effects of stress on their mental health.treatment and policies are reliant on understanding the risk and protective factors related to child sexual abuse.
4 However, this is complex due to: 1) the variety of definitions of child sexual abuse victimization and perpetration, 5 2) the challenges of assessing variables associated with. SAGE Video Bringing teaching, learning and research to life. SAGE Books The ultimate social sciences digital library.
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Summary of Risk and Protective Factors Provide the patient and significant others with a summary, using the Box framework of the CCM of the “risk” and “protective” factors. Youth gang affiliation, violence, and criminal activities: A review of motivational, risk, and protective factors.
J.C. Howell, A. EgleyMoving risk factors into developmental theories of gang membership. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 3 (), pp. Katz and Fox, recidivism, risk and protective factors, delinquency, YLS/CMI, juvenile offender Criminal behaviour, and in particular juvenile crime, may be regarded as an issue of major concern in today’s society.
Effects of Danger Exemplification on Risk Perception and Protective Behavior Dolf Zillmann University of Alabama. A Model of Exemplar Effects on Risk Assessment Definition Exemplars are concrete incidents, presented pictorially or linguistically via any perceptual.