Cultivating Thinking Skills 5 Minds for the Future: Because the modern world is unpredictable. Your industry, your job, and even your day-to-day life may be very different 10, 20, or 30 years from now. The only way to get ready for what comes next is to create the mental infrastructure to thrive in any environment.
This is not necessarily bad, he argues, because it means that centuries of practical knowledge has been assimilated into the profession.
However, when when conditions in the world are changing, educational change must happen. Excessive focus on science and technology reminds me of the myopia associated with ostriches or Luddites.
I believe that current formal education still prepares students primarily for the world of the past, rather than for possible worlds of the future. A disciplined mind has mastered a way of thinking about a specific scholarly discipline such as history, mathsm science, artcraft or profession such as law, medicine, management, finance and strives to renew and refine this mastery.
This thinking goes beyond knowledge, embracing the habits, skills, processes and attitudes of a particular discipline, such as history, science or law. Gardner suggests that mastery of a discpline takes at least ten years while renewing and refining is a lifelong process.
Gardner makes a distinction between the subject matter facts and the discipline the thinking behind a subject. For example, science as a discipline involves thought processes such as investigation, analysis, questioning and the generation and testing of hypotheses as well as attitudes such as curiosity, as well as scientific facts.
Schools tend to focus too much on factual content at the expense of the processes and attitudes: Or just to teach the facts and let students fend for themselves when it comes to thinking. He suggests that science, maths, history and an arts subject should be seen as gateways: Gardner points to research indicating that students are unable to apply what they have learned to topics they have not been directly taught: The trouble with the current curriculum is there is too much there, especially in Science.
Science must involve experimentation, the development and testing of hypotheses and simply being curious about the world. Gardner also argues that the knowledge gained through chunks of deep learning will be more meaningful, and thus will also breed a desire for more knowledge.
This is a powerful argument against fact-based learning. Facts, regardless of whether they are historical, scientific, mathematical or literary facts, all require the same thinking skill usually memorization and recall so more and more facts develops knowledge but keeps thinking at the same level.
Secondly, even if you were to teach all the curriculum objectives, there is always more knowledge to learn, and new knowledge being created every day. To be able to understand this additional knowledge by oneself requires the skills, habits, attitudes and processes of a disciplined mind what others call a lifelong learning skillor else to make sense of new knowledge or to make decisions based on this knowledge people will be totally dependent on others eg tabloid journalists ; Gardner suggests there is then no difference between the responses of an educated person and an undeducated one; a disciplined mind is what empowers an individual to think for themselves.
Someone without a disciplined mind is disempowered and may feel alienated, stupid and resentful. How to achieve a discliplined mind 1.
Identify significant, consequential topics or concepts within a discipline: Spend a significant amount of time on the topic. Approach the topic in different ways, eg by taking account of multiple intelligences.
This engages all students and enablces students to think about a topic in a variety of ways. This gives evidence of and deepens understanding and allows opportunities for formative assessment. It also gives students the opportunity to apply their skills and knowledge to other contexts. Here, in brief, is why most standardized measures of learning are of little use; they do not reveal whether the student can actually make use of the classroom material — the subject matter — once she steps outside the door p.
I have been through this wringer. Synthesizing massive amounts of data, intelligence, slants, opinions, tactics, and trying to maintain a strategic big picture was a challenge.
You feel it creeping up into your brain like a numbing cold and you just have to choke it all down, sift faster, and stay with it. A synthesizing mind is crucial because of the vast amount of information available today, and growing every day, from a wide range of sources.
And he lists the components of the synthesizing task: How to achieve a synthesizing mind Gardner notes how little attention synthesis gets in schools.
He notes the use of projects and theme-based curricula in schools and suggests the best way of using these to develop the synthesizing mind is to give explicit instructions.
For example, how to create rich narratives, powerful metaphors and non-linguistic representations; and the components of synthesis. And he suggests that students should aim to generate several representations of a synthesis to deepen understanding.
The Creating Mind Individuals without creative capacities will be replaced by computers and will drive away those who do have the creative spark.
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Creativity is essential as it allows us to keep one step ahead of computers and robots not sure this argument worksalthough he also says that every task that can be routinized eventually will be; creativity is not something that can be turned into routines. Gardner explains that we should see creativity in a broad sense not the Edward de Bono one-size-fits-all approach.
Problem solving is a creative endeavour; as are scientists who formulate a new theory.Howard Gardner, Five Minds for the Future Howard Gardner, professor of cognition and education at Harvard Graduate School of Education (the Multiple Intelligences Guy) argues that in our rapidly changing world, the following five minds, encapsulating skills, values, attitudes and knowledge, are crucial.
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