Instead of speaking to them, he set his eyes on the largest audience available: The entire world from then to the future.
It is called a democracy, because not the few but the many govern. If we look to the laws, they afford equal justice to all in their private differences; if to social standing, advancement in public life falls to reputation for capacity, class considerations not being allowed to interfere with merit; nor again does poverty bar the way, if a man is able to serve the state, he is not hindered by the obscurity of his condition.
Pericles' mother, Agariste, a member of the powerful and controversial noble family of the Alcmaeonidaeand her familial connections played a crucial role in helping start Xanthippus' political career.
Agariste was the great-granddaughter of the tyrant of SicyonCleisthenesand the niece of the Athenian reformer Cleisthenes.
His early years were quiet; the introverted young Pericles avoided public appearances, instead preferring to devote his time to his studies. He learned music from the masters of the time Damon or Pythocleides could have been his teacher   and he is considered to have been the first politician to attribute importance to philosophy.
Anaxagoras, in particular, became a close friend and influenced him greatly. Throughout these years he endeavored to protect his privacy and to present himself as a model for his fellow citizens.
For example, he would often avoid banquets, trying to be frugal. The Ecclesia the Athenian Assembly adopted Ephialtes' proposal without opposition. According to AristotlePericles' stance can be explained by the fact that his principal political opponent, Cimonwas both rich and generous, and was able to gain public favor by lavishly handing out portions of his sizable personal fortune.
Samons II argues, however, that Pericles had enough resources to make a political mark by private means, had he so chosen. The accusation was that Cimon betrayed his city by aiding Sparta. Constantine Paparrigopoulosa major modern Greek historian, argues that Pericles sought for the expansion and stabilization of all democratic institutions.
He was certain that democracy had reached its peak and Pericles' reforms were leading to the stalemate of populism. According to Paparrigopoulos, history vindicated Cimon, because Athens, after Pericles' death, sank into the abyss of political turmoil and demagogy.
Paparrigopoulos maintains that an unprecedented regression descended upon the city, whose glory perished as a result of Pericles' populist policies. First Peloponnesian War[ edit ] Main article: In BC he attacked Sicyon and Acarnania. Anthony J.
Podlecki argues, however, that Pericles' alleged change of position was invented by ancient writers to support "a tendentious view of Pericles' shiftiness".
Kagan's view is that Cimon adapted himself to the new conditions and promoted a political marriage between Periclean liberals and Cimonian conservatives.
The campaign culminated in disaster; the besieging force was defeated and destroyed. Pericles is said to have initiated both expeditions in Egypt and Cyprus,  although some researchers, such as Karl Julius Belochargue that the dispatch of such a great fleet conforms with the spirit of Cimon's policy.
The very existence of the treaty is hotly disputed, and its particulars and negotiation are ambiguous. The Congress failed because of Sparta's stance, but Pericles' intentions remain unclear. In BC the oligarchs of Thebes conspired against the democratic faction. The Athenians demanded their immediate surrender, but after the Battle of CoroneaPericles was forced to concede the loss of Boeotia in order to recover the prisoners taken in that battle.
Euboea and Megara revolted. Pericles crossed over to Euboea with his troops, but was forced to return when the Spartan army invaded Attica. Through bribery and negotiations, Pericles defused the imminent threat, and the Spartans returned home. Nonetheless, the "serious purpose" namely the bribery was so obvious to the auditors that they approved the expenditure without official meddling and without even investigating the mystery.
He then punished the landowners of Chalciswho lost their properties. The residents of Histiaeameanwhile, who had butchered the crew of an Athenian triremewere uprooted and replaced by 2, Athenian settlers. The ambitious new leader of the conservatives, Thucydides not to be confused with the historian of the same nameaccused Pericles of profligacy, criticizing the way he spent the money for the ongoing building plan.
Thucydides initially managed to incite the passions of the ecclesia regarding these charges in his favor. However, when Pericles took the floor, his resolute arguments put Thucydides and the conservatives firmly on the defensive.
Finally, Pericles proposed to reimburse the city for all questionable expenses from his private property, with the proviso that he would make the inscriptions of dedication in his own name.
The process by which the Delian League transformed into an Athenian empire is generally considered to have begun well before Pericles' time,  as various allies in the league chose to pay tribute to Athens instead of manning ships for the league's fleet, but the transformation was speeded and brought to its conclusion by Pericles.
After Thucydides' ostracism, Pericles was re-elected yearly to the generalship, the only office he ever officially occupied, although his influence was so great as to make him the de facto ruler of the state.
Worsted in the war, the Milesians came to Athens to plead their case against the Samians. Phidias, who had been in charge of all building projects, was first accused of embezzling gold meant for the statue of Athena and then of impiety, because, when he wrought the battle of the Amazons on the shield of Athena, he carved out a figure that suggested himself as a bald old man, and also inserted a very fine likeness of Pericles fighting with an Amazon.A Take on the Pericles’ and Socrates’ Views on Athenian Society Essay.
Athens is a major Greek city-state in European history. It was a great center of cultural and intellectual development, and thus home to philosophers. Pericles' Funeral Oration is a famous speech from Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War.
The speech was delivered by Pericles at the end of the first year of the Peloponnesian War ( - BCE). He was a famous Athenian politician.
The speech was a part of the yearly public funeral for the people who died in the war. Oct 28, · Listen to and read the funeral oration of Pericles from Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War.
This is the English translation by Benjamin Jowett. Scholars compare this . At the end of BC, Pericles delivered his famous Funeral Oration, to honor the dead soldiers of the Peloponnesian War, during an annual public funeral.
There are many similarities and differences that can be made between the two regarding their context and content.
Pericles’ “Funeral Oration” stands as one of the great speeches of Western history. Beloved by historians, it offers a glimpse into a pivotal moment in ancient Greek history. The war went on for decades, brought economic ruin, and a divided Greece opened the door for .
Pericles' Funeral Oration is a famous speech from Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War. The speech was delivered by Pericles, an eminent Athenian politician, at the end of the first year of the Peloponnesian War (– BC) as a part of the annual public funeral for the war dead.