Comorbidity Subtypes and specifiers for each disorder. In reading each of these aspects related to a disorder, you will become more adept at using the DSM-5 and display advanced clinical formulation abilities. It is also advisable to carefully read each coding note as well as coding and reporting procedures for each disorder.
Abstract The pathogenesis of catatonia is poorly understood and it can be fatal without effective treatment. Therefore, a swift diagnosis is necessary to treat this condition.
It has been rarely described in children and adolescents. In a literature search, we have found only one reported case of excited catatonia described in a year-old girl.
In the following case report, we discuss a year-old boy who presented with bipolar disorder-manic with catatonia. Through this case report, we hope to highlight some key points in the diagnosis and management of catatonia. Key Words catatonia, excited catatonia, bipolar disorder, adolescent Introduction Catatonia has been rarely described in children and adolescents.
We report the case of a year-old boy who presented with characteristics of excited catatonia. When conducting a thorough search on Pubmed, we found only one additional case report of excited catatonia in adolescence.
A year-old boy with a history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD and a mild learning disability diagnosed at age 12 presented to our emergency department with altered mental status.
The patient Catatonic schizophrenia case studies symptoms of disorganization and was talking in word salad. He had auditory and visual hallucinations as well as paranoid delusions.
His gait was festinating and unsteady and he exhibited muscle stiffness without cog-wheeling. The patient also presented with mild hypertension and tachycardia.
The patient had been treated for ADHD at age 12 with atomoxetine for three months. A month before the current presentation, the patient described to his parents an incident at school of someone putting a sexually explicit note in his book. The school teacher denied the incident ever took place.
A few weeks after this, he called the police while his parents were out.
The police found the patient to be incoherent and disorganized, and he was taken for psychiatric assessment. This led to his first psychiatric admission. He was admitted for two weeks to the psychiatric facility.
He presented with subacute onset of rapid speech, grandiosity, and reduced sleep.
He was initially tried on a low dose of olanzapine, which was switched to quetiapine mg twice daily and divalproex sodium mg twice daily because of extrapyramidal symptoms EPS severe dystonia. He again developed mild neck stiffness on quetiapine, which improved upon adding benztropine 1mg twice daily.
The patient improved on these medications and was discharged in a stable state on quetiapine 30mg twice dailydivalproex sodium mg twice dailyand benztropine 1mg twice daily. He was diagnosed with bipolar disorder, manic episode. After discharge, he did well for 4 to 5 days and returned to school.
However, his condition gradually deteriorated again, and his family found him increasingly confused with muscle stiffness leading to unstable gait. He was then evaluated by his outpatient psychiatrist who referred him to our emergency room with concern of neuroleptic malignant syndrome NMS.
Upon this current presentation to the emergency room at our facility, the psychiatry team evaluated him and found him to be floridly psychotic paranoid delusions along with auditory and visual hallucinations and disorganized.
He suffered from severe stiffness along with rapid eye blinking, unusual head and neck movements, and peculiar behavior simulating guitar playing. His parents additionally reported depressed mood and reductions in sleep, interest, energy, appetite, and concentration, as well as psychomotor retardation.
The patient was enrolled in the tenth grade and was doing well in classes. There was no history of use or abuse of illicit drugs or alcohol by the patient.
This was confirmed by a negative urine toxicity screening. There was no history of legal issues. The patient was supported by both parents. Family history was remarkable for maternal bipolar disorder.Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal behavior and a decreased ability to understand reality.
Common symptoms include false beliefs, unclear or confused thinking, hearing voices that others do not, reduced social engagement and emotional expression, and a lack of motivation.
People with schizophrenia often have additional mental health problems such as anxiety. Patients with catatonic schizophrenia show a somewhat different profile of risk factors from those with other types of schizophrenia in this cohort and are more likely to attempt suicide. A great read. Six heroin addicts who did some "bad dope" (an underground lab's version of a Demerol analogue), and who strangely went into full-blown Parkinson's as a .
Axis V - Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. Axis V is part of the DSM "multiaxial" system for assessment. The five axis model is designed to provide a comprehensive diagnosis that includes a complete picture of not just acute symptoms but of the entire scope of .
The Schizophrenia Society of Canada Website is hosted and maintained by Data Tracker Ltd. - provider of database development services, website design and web hosting from Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. In the 20th century, catatonia was usually deemed a subtype of schizophrenia. Recently, the nature and classification of catatonia are being reconsidered.
This study is the first to describe catatonia using prospectively collected data and to examine how catatonic schizophrenia differs from, or.