September 11, by Saugat Adhikari In the course of human evolution, at a certain point in time, the idea of living in a group with mutual understanding and dependency became a very useful and practical lifestyle. From such small isolated groups, communities were formed. Then came the societies which in due time became a civilization.
During this period of Egyptian history the Pharaohs were absolute rulers. The Old Kingdom failed at around BC for a number of reasons. These included the long life span of Pepi II, who ruled 94 years.
Pepi II lived to be about years of age, outliving many of his heirs. Additionally, the lower Nile inundation became irregular and led to failed harvests, which may have been caused by a drier climate.
The First Intermediate Period[ edit ] Monarches competed for control of Egypt and civil wars were common. Famines were common during this period and it is called the dark age of Egyptian History. It lasted from BC. The Pharaohs period of this period called themselves good shepherds and they were not as powerful as they were during the Old Kingdom.
Their pyramids were smaller. The Middle Kingdom ended because of weak Pharaohs and an invasion by Asiantic people called the Hyksos. This period lasted from BC. Later his son Tutankhamen restored the old religion, Tutankhamen died at 18 leaving no heirs to the throne.
He ruled for 67 years. He protected Egypt from invasion. About BC the New Kingdom ended. These semi-nomadic peoples domesticated wheat, barley, sheep, goat and cattle.
Pottery was in use by the 6th millennium BC. Their settlement consisted of mud buildings that housed four internal subdivisions. Burials included elaborate goods such as baskets, stone and bone tools, beads, bangles, pendants and occasionally animal sacrifices.
Figurines and ornaments of sea shell, limestone, turquoise, lapis lazuli, sandstone and polished copper have been found. By the 4th millennium BC we find much evidence of manufacturing. Technologies included stone and copper drills, updraft kilns, large pit kilns and copper melting crucibles.
Button seals included geometric designs. Indus Valley civilization[ edit ] By BC a pre-Harappan culture emerged, with trade networks including lapis lazuli and other raw materials. Villagers domesticated numerous other crops, including peas, sesame seed, dates, and cotton, plus a wide range of domestic animals, including the water buffalo which still remains essential to intensive agricultural production throughout Asia today.
There is also evidence of sea-going craft. Archaeologists have discovered a massive, dredged canal and docking facility at the coastal city of Lothal, India, perhaps the world's oldest sea-faring harbour. Judging from the dispersal of artifacts the trade networks integrated portions of Afghanistan, the Persian coast, northern and central India, Mesopotamia see Meluhha and Ancient Egypt see Silk Road.
Archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh, Pakistan, discovered that these peoples in the Indus Valley Civilization had knowledge of medicine and dentistry as early as circa BC. The Indus Valley Civilization gains credit for the earliest known use of decimal fractions in a uniform system of ancient weights and measures, as well as negative numbers see Timeline of mathematics.
The Indus Valley Civilization boasts the earliest known accounts of urban planning. As seen in Harappa, Mohenjo-daro and recently discovered Rakhigarhi, their urban planning included the world's first urban sanitation systems.
Evidence suggests efficient municipal governments. Streets were laid out in perfect grid patterns comparable to modern New York. Houses were protected from noise, odors and thieves.
The sewage and drainage systems developed and used in cities throughout the Indus Valley were far more advanced than that of contemporary urban sites in Mesopotamia. The exact connection of the genesis of this civilization with the Indus Valley civilization on one hand, and a possible Indo-Aryan migration on the other hand, is the subject of disputes.
Early Vedic society was largely pastoral.
Later on, the society became agricultural, and was organized around four Varnas, or classes. Several small kingdoms and tribes merged to form a few large ones which were often at war with each other.
In addition to the principle texts of Hinduism, the Vedasthe great Indian epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, the latter of which constitutes the longest poem in the world, are said to have been first written during this period, perhaps from a longer spoken tradition of unwritten recitation.
The Bhagavad Gita, another primary text of Hinduism, is contained within the Mahabharata.History: From the Dawn of Civilization to the Present Day [Adam Hart-Davis] on rutadeltambor.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
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The ingredients of civilization: Many different elements must come together before a human community develops to the level of sophistication commonly referred to as civilization. But all this was part of human culture, not a human civilization. And then the Mesopotamians rose, refining, adding and formalizing all these systems, combining them to form the first civilization.
They prospered in the regions of modern-day Iraq – then known as Babylonia, Sumer and Assyria highlands.